Development of a 3D Modelling Gallery Based on Virtual Reality
PRESENTER: Zhaoyu Xu
ABSTRACT. Virtual reality (VR) technology has been widely applied in various fields, including entertainment, healthcare and education. In design and engineering education, VR technology shows the potential to improve traditional education practices by enhancing creativity and motivation through immersive learning experiences. With the interactive features and high-quality scenes provided by VR, the students’ learning of 3D modelling in design and engineering disciplines may be highly motivating. This paper aims to develop a 3D modelling gallery based on VR to assist design and engineering students in learning 3D modelling. The system offers two main features, a virtual campus scene and a practice showcase, which allow students to explore and understand the modelling process of 3D models in a virtual environment. The integration of the 3D Modelling Gallery into the curriculum can help deepen students’ understanding of 3D modelling, break the limitations of traditional teaching, and increase students’ learning interest in 3D modelling.
STEAM Project Exhibition in the Metaverse for Deaf High School Students Affective Empowerment
PRESENTER: Stylianos Mystakidis
ABSTRACT. The Metaverse is the three-dimensional iteration of the Internet, a perpetual open web of persistent, networked environments merging physical reality with digital virtuality. Science Technology Engineering Art Mathematics (STEAM) education bridges two knowledge domains often perceived as disjointed: science and technology with art, humanities and social studies. This paper presents the design and development of a multi-school transdisciplinary STEAM project orchestrated by the University of Patras Science and Technology Museum. The deliverables of the project were analog and digital artifacts produced by K-12 primary and secondary school students on digital literacy and future citizenship. These were presented in an innovative virtual reality exhibition that was open and accessible in a web-based 3D online environment. The study employs an exploratory case study design involving deaf high school students and teachers. Data was collected from observation and semi-structured interviews. Results showed that the exhibition of deaf student creations in a multiuser virtual space in the Metaverse produced a series of social ripple effects around the students themselves, school peers, both with and without hearing difficulties as well as educators. Its main contribution is the practical demonstration of the social affordances of the Metaverse in educational projects for children and adolescents with hearing disabilities.
Designing an AR-Based Materials Library for Higher Education: Offering a Four-Know Learning Structure for Design and Engineering Students
PRESENTER: Yuanyuan Xu
ABSTRACT. The development of immersive technologies can offer broader possibilities to future-oriented materials education in Design and Engineering. Augmented reality (AR) is an immersive technology that delivers a variety of information superimposed on top of the physical world via see-through glasses. Incorporating sensorial experiences provided by the physical materials library and the informative benefits of AR technology, an AR materials library comprising the Four-Know framework is proposed. Aside from material information retrieval, this library supplements sensory experience by overlapping the virtual model with specific materials in the real world. After the development of the user interface and AR functionalities, students with design and engineering backgrounds participated in a user test. The results indicated that the proposed design provided positive outcomes. In the future, this AR-based materials library is expected to serve as a design guide for the materials learning community and can be extended to other disciplines in higher education.
Introducing a new Technology Quality Indicator for Intervention Design in Special Education
PRESENTER: Georgia Iatraki
ABSTRACT. There’s significant value in following a systematic methodology in educational research, not only to gain valid and reliable empirical data, but also to determine which interventions meet quality indicators and consistently generate expected results. Looking at Special Education, and in line with the necessity for methodological rigor, specific quality indicators to ensure evidence in educational empirical study designs have been developed. In this sense, digital technologies, and recently, immersive technologies are increasingly being used in educational interventions due to the positive learning outcomes seen in cognitive, affective, and psychomotor domains. Nevertheless, the affordances of the technology used in such interventions are hardly considered indicating a research gap worth investigating further. Single subject design seems to support effective instructional interventions because of the unique characteristics of every student with a specific disability. This work introduces Augmented Reality, among other quality indicators, to measure the extent of which the structure of matter is understood by students with Intellectual Disabilities. The empirical study set forth in this paper satisfactorily met all existing quality indicators, in addition to the newly introduced AR technology indicator. Findings showed that the research design of the enriched set of quality indicators increased student motivation and their understanding of abstract Physics concepts. The students with ID acquired targeted physics concepts, as well as inquiry skills thanks to their involvement in a vivid experience. These results point to the contribution of AR technology through its affordances as a new quality indicator among the existing set.
Work, Trade, Learn: Developing an Immersive Serious Game for History Education
PRESENTER: David Fernes
ABSTRACT. History education often struggles with a lack of interest from students. Serious games can help make learning about history more en- gaging. Students can directly experience situations of the past as well as interact and communicate with agents representing people of the re- spective era. This allows for situated learning. Besides using computer screens, the gameplay can also be experienced using immersive Virtual Reality (VR). VR adds an additional spatial level and can further in- crease the engagement as well as vividness. To investigate the benefits of using VR for serious games targeting the learning of history, we devel- oped a serious game for desktop-3D and VR. Our serious game puts a player into the role of a medieval miller’s apprentice. Following a situated learning approach, the learner operates a mill and interacts with several other characters. These agents discuss relevant facts of the medieval life, thus enabling the construction of knowledge about the life in medieval towns. An evaluation showed that the game in general was successful in increasing the user’s knowledge about the covered topics as well as their topic interest in history. Whether the immersive VR or the simple desktop version of the application was used did not have any influence on these results. Additional feedback was gathered to improve the game further in the future
Digitising the Cultural Landscape of North Uist
PRESENTER: Sharon Pisani
ABSTRACT. North Uist lies in the Western Isles, at the heart of the vernacular Gaelic community. The area is rich in heritage, with unique archaeological sites accompanied by artefacts, stories, poems, and songs about local legends or contemporary accounts of past events. Many are available in English, but are at their most expressive and authentic in the original Gaelic. Currently, there is a crisis in the vernacular community; decade-on-decade reductions in the numbers of people using Gaelic in their day-to-day lives presents an urgent problem for the community. The recent revolution in the way that digital technologies are being used offers innovative opportunities to preserve the `Cultural Landscape', to make it more widely available, and indeed to contribute to its development. Capturing this requires the representation of the landscape that provides the setting for North Uist's heritage. Emergent immersive and mobile technologies offer the possibility of integrating digital representations of these elements into the Gaelic medium, with the goal of capturing vernacular interpretation of Uist heritage, ensuring that Gaelic expression is part of emergent media and that the transmission of heritage and language is authentic.
Towards a University-Wide Implementation of Extended Reality
PRESENTER: Alexander Vanhulsel
ABSTRACT. While university educators worldwide start to see the benefits of using extended reality (XR) in their classes, they often lack a policy framework and support from their management to do so effectively. As a result, various XR initiatives arise throughout universities, leaving all knowledge, expertise and XR learning materials scattered and unexploited by the majority of the other staff. At Thomas More University of Applied Sciences, Belgium, we are working towards a framework for a university-wide implementation of XR in learning. To achieve this goal, there are several challenges to overcome: mapping the existing initiatives and needs, inspiring educators, sharing knowledge and expertise, purchasing hardware and related software within a limited budget, and drafting a pedagogical and organizational policy framework. In this work-in-progress paper, we explain how Thomas More addresses these challenges and works towards a university-wide implementation of XR for learning.
Work-in-Progress: Assessing the Feasibility of Playtesting Video Games Using Immersive Technologies as a Learning Method
PRESENTER: Louis Nisiotis
ABSTRACT. This paper assesses the feasibility of playtesting video games using immersive technologies as a method to support learning games development. It presents a study where university students and professional game developers collaborated in playtesting video games under development as part of the learning outcomes of their course. Data was collected investigating students’ perceptions of the effectiveness of playtesting as a learning method, the immersiveness of the experience, its value to learning, and to their professional awareness. The results of this research indicate that using video games and immersive technologies to support learning has promising potentials when utilised meaningfully and structured accordingly to meet specific learning objectives.
Studying the impact of the virtual course “Magnetic field. Electromagnetic induction” on educational
PRESENTER: Lidia Yatluk
ABSTRACT. Spatial immersion is one of the key features of immersive virtual reality, which qualitatively distinguishes it from the desktop virtual reality. The spatial relative position of objects and forces is crucial to understanding the laws and rules in physics studying. Purpose: The special software for the school education program module "Magnetic Field. Electromagnetic induction" for Vive Focus was developed to explore virtual reality learning as an additional tool to study spatial rules. A study was conducted with 61 ninth-grade students from five schools. The results have shown that learning in virtual reality has a positive effect on practical skills in the short term, while in the middle term the effectiveness of VR was not revealed.
The Impact World
PRESENTER: Diogo Cardoso
ABSTRACT. The project described in this article is a work in progress and describes the development process of the Immersive Web Environment, The Impact World, created under the curricular unit of Virtual and Augmented Reality and subordinated to the general theme ECO-SCHOOLS. The aim of this project is to create an educational resource to alert all visitors of the immersive space, for the impact that their daily habits, whether food, as can be seen in the museum, or small actions, often performed in an unconscious way, as can be seen throughout the space surrounding the museum, have on the planet. In this article we describe the immersive environment created, using the A-Frame framework. The project is still in a development phase, so there has not yet been a formal phase of testing with the target audience. However, before starting the formal testing phase, it is intended that this prototype already implemented, be tested with a test group, so that they can contribute to improve the immersive experience and/or graphical interface.
Preservice Teachers’ Perceptions of Advantages of Virtual and Augmented Reality Technology in the Everyday K-12 Classroom
PRESENTER: David Fernes
ABSTRACT. As immersive technologies enter school classrooms, teachers begin to adopt these technologies for their respective subjects. But the potentials and advantages differ between subjects and technologies, which is why it is interesting to investigate how future teachers perceive these advantages. Following the learning affordances from Dalgarno and Lee, the SAMR model of Puentedura, and the visualization forms of representation from Schwan and Buder, we analyzed fictional letters from preservice teachers attending a seminar on immersive teaching and learning according to these categories. This work-in-progress paper presents the results on the following research questions: 1) How do reported a) learning affordances, b) technology integrations, and c) visualization forms differ between virtual reality and augmented reality? and 2) How do reported a) learning affordances, b) technology integrations, and c) visualization forms differ between subjects? Results indicate that VR and AR offer different sets of advantages for learning. Based on these results guidelines for which technology to use under which circumstances can be derived. While there also may be differences between subjects this preliminary study could not offer clear insights in this regard.
Designing Game-Based Assessments for Programming
PRESENTER: Meena Jha
ABSTRACT. Concern exists regarding the methods used to implement various assessment types and how they affect students' learning and participation. Assessments require a large amount of time to mark and to provide feedback to the student which comes after the task is completed and lacks interaction and engagement of students. Game-based learning has known to enhance the interaction between learner and teacher and is useful in embedding interactive tasks. Game mechanics and principles can be used to develop Game-based assessments (GBAs) to assess a student’s understanding of learning concepts enhancing the use of assessments in classroom settings, albeit GBA is still in its infancy. In order to incorporate assessment tasks for programming courses, this paper offers a basic prototype on how game mechanics, domain knowledge, pedagogy, and learning mechanisms can be linked to design GBAs to align with learning objectives.
Work-in-Progress—Visitor Onboarding for On-Site Mixed Reality Experiences in Museums: Learnings from Curators, Designers, Researchers and Artists
ABSTRACT. A growing body of research highlights the positive impact of Mixed Reality (MR) experiences in museum settings on visitor engagement. However, MR has not yet seen widespread adoption in museums, and user experience (UX) design of such experiences remains a crucial concern. Moreover, as a relatively new media form, most visitors need to become more familiar with MR and need onboarding assistance. Additionally, museum visitors have a low threshold for investing time in learning new interfaces to experience the narrative. While individual MR projects have tackled this issue, there is a lack of research incorporating professionals’ perspectives in designing and planning MR exhibits in museums. This work-in-progress paper presents findings through thematic coding of semi-structured interviews of professionals who work with MR and identify as curators, designers, researchers, and artists. The results are divided into three parts. The first part looks at the need for onboarding flows in MR experiences in museums. The second part highlights common approaches to effective visitor onboarding for MR exhibits. The findings emphasise the need to create MR experiences that need minimal onboarding. The third part describes the types of MR experiences in museums that require minimal onboarding. The findings indicate a preference for designing experiences that respond to the spatial context, are well embedded in the museum’s physical space, and employ familiar interaction design due to the ability of such experiences to quickly onboard novice visitors.
iCoding: Immersive Coding in Unity
PRESENTER: Eros Viola
ABSTRACT. We present a novel application of Virtual Reality and Unity for introductory coding exercises. First of all, we have recreated a game room with arcade custom cabinets in a 3D scenario. Players move in the room and select a cabinet by simply approaching it (i.e. entering its bounding box). The novelty of our application is that each cabinet, besides providing a different arcade game, is equipped with a block editor through which players face different types of computational thinking and coding challenges (e.g. programming the behavior of sprites in the arcade game). Our framework thus enables traditional coding activities (based on visual languages and arcade games) in an immersive experience in a VR scenario. This combination requires additional skills such a rapid adaptation to the passage from 3D to 2D scenarios during the game. In the paper we describe the resulting application and the expected learning potential and outcomes.
Work-in-Progress — Gamified Experiential Learning of Human Anatomical Structures for Undergraduate Students in eXtended Reality: Experiences, Results and Recommendations
PRESENTER: Markus Karlseder
ABSTRACT. eXtended Reality (XR) environments appear to be a promising approach to learning in educational contexts where knowledge regarding spatial location and orientation in relation to a number of different structures has to be acquired. The aim of the presented research project is to report on insights and results gathered throughout the user-centered implementation of gamified experiential learning of human anatomical structures for undergraduate students in eXtended Reality. First, we report on the application design itself and certain design decisions we have taken based on input from the target group and related trainers. Second, we report on results from a preliminary study with 96 students (n=96) and feedback from three experts in the field of education and healthcare. Third, we contextualize these results and the feedback with respect to recommendations for improvements within the next iterations of the application.
Work-in-Progress-Visualising the Impacts of Climate Change with Immersive Technology
PRESENTER: Maria Andrei
ABSTRACT. This work-in-progress paper analyses how immersive technologies can contribute to overcoming psychological barriers which impede behavioural changes that are needed in response to Climate Change. Although Climate Change poses immediate and long-term challenges to many aspects of our lives, these are often perceived as psychologically distant because they are communicated in abstract ways, which inhibits pro-environmental behaviour. Virtual Reality (VR) has the potential to address this psychological barrier by enabling people to directly experience the impacts of global warming and visualise them in concrete ways, which in turn can induce ecological behaviour.
Effects of Attention Guidance on Virtual Reality Training for an Industrial Assembly Task
PRESENTER: Joy Gisler
ABSTRACT. One of the main objectives of Virtual Training Environments (VTEs) for industrial training is to train workers for a real world task. Prior work identified a multitude of factors influencing a VTE’s effectiveness. In this work-in-progress paper, we add to this body of research by evaluating the effect of attention guidance (AG) on a VTE’s effectiveness. In a controlled between-subject design pilot study with 42 participants, participants were trained in a VTE either with or without AG. Subsequently, learning transfer was assessed in a Real-World Evaluation (RWE). Our findings indicate that, while not necessary for a VTE’s efficacy, AG appears to be a substantial factor in a VTE’s effectiveness.
Work-In-Progress – A Virtual Reality Application for Learning Geometry
PRESENTER: Yasamin Tahiri
ABSTRACT. Dynamic geometry software makes it possible to manipulate and adapt geometric constructions. This enables an extended exploration of geometric relationships. This can improve the understanding of geometry. However, this software is often difficult to use and there are only few applications in the field of Mixed Reality, thus disregarding possible advantages such as an improved spatial perception in virtual space. For this reason, this paper presents a VR application that can be used to create geometric constructions. It is described how criteria of intuitive usage and functions of dynamic geometry software are used to simplify the usage and to use the advantages of Mixed Reality.
The Relationship between Presence, Flow and Interest in Immersive Learning Applications for Higher Education
PRESENTER: David Fernes
ABSTRACT. Interest can be an important factor influencing the success of a learning application. It can be defined as "psychological state characterized by focused attention, increased cognitive and affective functioning, and persistent effort". This definition shows some similarities with the concepts of flow and presence, both of which can occur in immersive applications. This would make immersive media a perfect fit for learning applications. In order to investigate the advantages of immersive media for learning this doctoral colloquium paper presents a research plan for investigating the relationship between the concepts of flow, presence and interest in immersive learning applications and how this relationship may vary between different applications.
The Effectiveness of Immersive Soft Skills Training in Higher Education
PRESENTER: Esra Çakı
ABSTRACT. This doctoral colloquium paper presents an ongoing research study that investigates the use of immersive technologies in the context of soft skills training in higher education. Given the growing interest in academia and industry in the use of immersive technologies for a variety of learning contexts, this study will investigate whether and to what extent immersive training would be effective in improving learners' soft skills.
Doctoral Colloquium—a Comparison Between Immersive and Non-Immersive VR Technology on Individual and Collaborative Creativity
PRESENTER: Jiayin Liu
ABSTRACT. This article described a PhD proposal which studies the comparison of the impact of the virtual contextual cue, the virtual avatar and the virtual settings such as interaction modality on individual and collective creativity under non-immersive and immersive virtual environments. The PhD project aims at exploring the role of the sense of presence and the sense of embodiment in creativity enhancement in the virtual world.
Shifts in Student Attitudes and Beliefs about Science Through Extended Play in an Immersive Science Game
PRESENTER: Shari Metcalf
ABSTRACT. This research considers the impact of a digital science game that provides immersive experiences in which participants take on the role of a scientist and learn through active engagement with simulated science environments and tools. Wake: Tales from the Aqualab is an immersive web-based middle school science game designed to teach science practices of experimentation, modeling, and argumentation in aquatic ecosystems. This paper describes findings from a study of approximately 250 middle school students who used the game over two weeks. A pre-post survey of affective measures found significant gains in student science identity, self-efficacy, and interest. Classroom observations and interviews with students and teachers supported these findings, suggesting that the immersive qualities of the game helped students think of themselves as scientists and engage in authentic science practices, contributing to shifts in students’ attitudes and beliefs about science.
Superfrog: Comparing Learning Outcomes and Potentials of a Worksheet, Smartphone, and Tangible AR Learning Environment
PRESENTER: Sebastian Oberdörfer
ABSTRACT. The widespread availability of smartphones facilitates the integration of digital, Augmented Reality (AR), and Tangible Augmented Reality (TAR) learning environments in classroom teaching. A haptic aspect can improve the overall user experience during the learning process. To investigate further benefits of using TAR for educational purposes, we compare a TAR and a smartphone learning environment to a traditional worksheet counterpart with respect to learning effectiveness, emotions, motivation, and cognitive load. 64 pupils used either one of the three versions to learn about the anatomy of frogs. We found no significant differences with respect to learning effectiveness and cognitive load. The TAR condition evoked significantly higher positive emotions compared to the worksheet, but not to the smartphone version. Both digital learning environments caused a significantly higher motivation in contrast to the worksheet. Thus, our results suggest that smartphone and TAR learning environments are equally beneficial for improving learning processes.
Ian Roy (Brandeis University, United States)
Jordan Tynes (Wellesley College, United States)
The iLRN 2023 “Framework for Aggregation and Identification of Design Standards” (FAIDS) Workshop Series
PRESENTER: Jordan Tynes
ABSTRACT. What are the biggest design obstacles currently faced by the iLRN community? How do we quickly develop a shared understanding of these issues? As we begin working on these challenges, how do we allow interdisciplinary synergies to flourish?
To answer these questions, the iLRN working group for the “Framework for Aggregation and Identification of Design Standards” (FAIDS) is proposing a two-part workshop at the iLRN 2023 annual meeting, for the virtual and in-person conferences. This will be a continuation of the work that began at the annual meeting in 2022 in Vienna, where the FAIDS working group engaged in-person attendees to identify and describe “standards for the development and implementation of immersive learning environments,” which is summarized in the two-page proceedings document (https://immersivelrn.org/resources/ilrn-publications-proceedings/70/ilrn2022-synthesis-of-faids-workshops).
The two-part workshop proposed for 2023 will provide an opportunity for the iLRN community to discover a topic we want to better understand and then collaboratively explore that topic. Using the design thinking methodology developed for the conference in Vienna, FAIDS will guide attendees of the virtual conference in an ideation session, which will result in a topic to be more thoroughly explored by a large portion of the in-person attendees in California. This will allow the iLRN community to determine a large, pressing issue for which we are all interested in developing language and standards towards a shared understanding. The results of this workshop will be published in a proceedings document and/or paper by the FAIDS working group.
How can we use Alternate Reality Games (ARGs) for educational purposes. ARGs use transmedia storytelling to build a world and share a story across different platforms; which often uses real-world interactions to help tell this virtual story, such as phone calls, websites, social media accounts, and live events (Schrier, 2016; Schrier, Torner, & Hammer, 2018). ARGs have been used to market games like Halo 2, in the case of ilovebees, and to promote the launch of the film The Dark Knight or launch of the character, Sombra, from Overwatch. They could also potentially be used for teaching purposes (Hu, Zhang, & Rhea, 2016). However, there are limitations to using ARGs for learning, such as the current stigma that ARGs are associated with the propagation of disinformation and conspiracy theories (Davies, 2022). In this session, we will brainstorm ways to effectively use ARGs for learning, and we will also consider the limitations and how to constructively minimize those issues. How can we repair play (Trammell, 2023) and reclaim it for playing well together, rather than to harm or isolate others, or amass power (DeKoven, Zimmerman; ADL, 2022). The session will be collaborative, and use design thinking techniques to help participants brainstorm and learn from each others’ experiences. You are welcome no matter what your experience level is–even if you have never played or used an ARG, please join us!
Forecasts predict that by 2026 a quarter of the population will spend at least an hour a day in the Metaverse or digital virtual environments.Currently several tech companies are trying to understand how to design an entirely new immersive world, but when considering attitudinal, behavioral and social aspects of human diversity it is logical to ask how the Metaverse could be truly designed by people, with people and for people?There is no doubt that we are living in the immersive technology renaissance era, however how can we maximize this opportunity, by learning from what we have developed in the past with other technologies?With the Metaverse we are at a different point in history than when we created the Internet.We now have more knowledge of Inclusive Design, more understanding of DEI and ethics and integrity practices, and more accessibility standards and policies; therefore, businesses have no excuses for not designing a Metaverse and its technologies to be truly inclusive, accessible, and safe from the very start.As the society is rapidly moving towards addressing the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals for all human beings, safety, inclusion, diversity, equity, and accessibility are becoming fundamental pillars upon which develop the Metaverse and digital, virtual environments.With this plenary session Dr. Zallio will share cutting-edge research findings, case studies from businesses and initiate a conversation on a new discipline called the Metavethics (https://www.metavethics.com/), that deals with ethical and integrity implications of the Metaverse and digital, virtual environments.Scientists, businesses and organizations are in urgent need to develop new knowledge, and tools to best address new challenges and maximize future opportunities to build digital, virtual environments that make people thrive.The boundaries for what the Metaverse could be and what people could do with it and in it are just set by human’s abilities of imagination and we can nurture this imagination by working together to design more sustainable.
Doctoral Colloquium—Social, Technological, & Pedagogical Design Considerations of SVVR Systems for Autistic Learners: a Systematic Literature Review
PRESENTER: Charles Thull
ABSTRACT. Autistic learners benefit from instructional design that accommodates learning differences (i.e. communication, social skills, and executive functions). Spherical video virtual reality (SVVR) is a cost effective approach that allows designers to provide a supportive learning environment for autistic users. This systematic literature review considers learner experience design and the socio-technical-pedagogical framework for usability to evaluate and describe SVVR research for autistic learners.
Evaluating the Usability of Autistic Adults Using a Public Transportation Virtual Reality System
PRESENTER: Eden Hartigan
ABSTRACT. This study presents Virtuoso, a virtual reality program that was designed to teach skills related to using public transportation on a university campus for autistic adults. The study evaluated the Virtuoso program using a design-based research framework, with a focus on evaluating the second prototype of the VR system with a focus on examining system usability.
Exploring the Intersection of AI, Art, and Immersive Learning: AI imagery as Data Analysis as AI Art Exhibition
ABSTRACT. AI Art as a Form of Data Analysis: Exploring the Intersection of Technology, Creativity, and Post-Humanism. This exhibition/paper explores the ways in which AI art can be used as a form of data analysis, and explore its potential to shape the future of creativity and post-humanism. Showcase the current state of AI art and its role in the intersection of technology and creativity, as well as its implications for post-humanism. Additionally, analyse the ways in which immersive learning can enhance the understanding and appreciation of AI art. Through a combination of literature review and examples, this exhibition/paper aims to provide a deeper understanding of the potential of AI art as a form of data analysis for immersive learning and educational research.
Learning Analytics & Classroom Management in Specialized Environments: Enhancing the VR Classroom for CS Teacher Education
PRESENTER: Birte Heinemann
ABSTRACT. The teachers' attention is an important factor in managing a classroom effectively. It affects students' learning outcomes and is different for novice and experienced teachers. However, teaching classroom management, especially for specialized subjects like computer science where specific equipment is necessary, can be challenging. Moreover, it is difficult to provide real-life training opportunities as lessons cannot be repeated and experimentation time is very limited. This is particularly problematic for novice teachers and teacher students. To address this and support this issue, virtual reality and immersive learning can be used to simulate classroom scenarios and provide (data-driven and personal) feedback to pre-service teachers. In this paper, the subject-specific dimensions of computer science classroom management are discussed and a virtual computer lab for training purposes is proposed. Additionally, the potential of learning analytics to help learners reflect on their experiences is theory-led derived. The developments presented can be used to examine subject-specific differences between computer science and other subjects, as well as cultural differences between teachers around the world and differences between novices and more experienced teachers.
A Portable Multi-User Cross-Platform Virtual Reality Platform for School Teaching in Malawi
PRESENTER: Neil A. Gordon
ABSTRACT. This paper discusses and evaluates a self-contained portable multi-user cross-platform Virtual Reality (VR) setup that was devised and configured using off the shelf technologies and devices. This paper exemplifies how some fundamental challenges like those faced in Malawi in relation to technology use, can be addressed, to allow for the use of VR technology as a potential solution to improving the quality of secondary school education in situations where the challenges in question are faced. This paper explains how the proposed VR setup was evaluated, where the results of that evaluation indicate that the proposed portable multi-user cross-platform VR setup is viable and can potentially be used for secondary school teaching. This is a follow-up to previous work that outlined the design and implementation of a VR software application to showcase the capabilities and functionality of this “Synchronous Multi-User Cross-Platform Virtual Reality for School Teachers”, which consisted of using questionnaire data collected from school educators in England and it was part of a larger study. Whilst the challenges addressed are those that are faced in Malawi, the platform has more general applicability to a range of teaching contexts.
Framework of Pedagogic and Usability Principles for Effective Multi-user VR Learning Environments
PRESENTER: Anna Marija Ansone
ABSTRACT. Education and learning continue to evolve because of the rapid speed of technological advancement in the 21st century. The growing presence of emerging technologies increases the potential of an innovative environment that can promote and facilitate learning. The impact of immersive technology in the field of learning has been widely discussed and studied by the scientific community in the first two decades of the 21st century. Especially with the advent of the ambition for the unified and fluid multi-user virtual world - Metaverse and the limiting realities of the COVID-19 pandemic, new modes of virtual interaction have found the spotlight, including in the field of education. The success of VR educational content, especially multi-user educational content, depends, in large part, on how usable and adaptable it is for learning purposes. This study investigates pedagogic and usability principles for effective multi-user VR learning environments based on Gagne's Nine Events of Instruction model and Nielsen's usability heuristics and analyses survey data collected during multi-user VR content testing. The study used a mixed-methods approach involving multi-user VR environment testing with a group of Higher Education students. This study proposes a framework of pedagogic and usability principles for developing effective multi-user VR learning environments based on survey data analysis and theoretic principles of the Technology Enhanced Learning approach, Gagne's Nine Events model of Instruction and Nielsen's Usability Heuristics.
Teachers’ Experience When Using Interactive Applications with Augmented Reality Glasses
PRESENTER: Tryfon Sivenas
ABSTRACT. The emerging technology of Augmented Reality (AR) is expected to have a significant impact on education. The most frequently studied implementation of this technology concerns applications based on widespread mobile devic-es. These applications usually enrich the real world with virtual educational multimedia content that users can view, but not interact with. Wearable de-vices like AR glasses allow users to be better immersed in and more effec-tively interact with the virtual content since their hands are free for handling controllers or hand tracking. Nevertheless, relevant literature indicates that there is a limited amount of research on teachers' experience when using in-teractive educational applications with wearable AR glasses. The aim of this study was to investigate teachers' experience when using interactive educa-tional applications with AR glasses. The sample consisted of 46 primary and secondary school teachers with previous experience in using mobile-based AR applications. The participants used three interactive applications on the Magic Leap 1 AR glasses for 40-45 minutes and were then asked to evaluate their levels of spatial presence, simulator sickness, usability, and workload. The results support that the use of educational interactive applications with AR glasses was a positive experience and that this is a promising technology for educational uses.
Teachers’ Perceptions Towards the Use of Augmented Reality Smart Glasses in Their Teaching
PRESENTER: Georgia Kazakou
ABSTRACT. The purpose of this study was the investigantion of teachers’ perceptions towards the use of Augmented Reality Smart Glasses (ARGSs) in their teaching and the pilot testing of a questionnaire regarding the factors that influence the intention to use those glasses. The theoretical framework of the questionnaire was based on the variables of the Mobile Augmented Reality Acceptance Model (MARAM) as well as on the variable of the social influence of UTAUT. The sample consisted of 45 in-service primary and secondary education teachers who interacted with Augmented Reality (AR) applications through the Magic Leap 2 device. The results of this pilot study showed that teachers were positive about viewing the AR with the ARSGs, and that all variables of the model were evaluated positively. In addition the results showed that further research is needed to enhance Cronbach’s alpha in the intention and facilitating conditions variables. Future research will be re-implemented with a larger sample in order to draw conclusions that are expected to have significant implications to researchers, practitioners, and education policymakers.
Healthcare organizations carry the responsibility to ensure caregivers demonstrate competency to maintain the highest standards of patient safety and quality of care. A lapse in that care can result in serious physical and emotional harm to the patient, and financial repercussions for the healthcare organization.The burden of education and training is overwhelming for the healthcare industry. Ever-changing protocols and standards, nursing shortages and constant turnover, and limited resources - including educators, training spaces, supplies, and equipment - complicates this herculean task. Finding alternative methodology to train caregivers with efficiency and measurable effectiveness is paramount.3lbXR has developed a suite of VR training applications, partnered with Tucson Medical Center, for Registered Nurses and Primary Care Technicians. This project includes a module on Fall Prevention, which is currently part of a research study “Using Virtual Reality to Advance Education & Training for Nursing.”Robin Moulder will provide insight on how 3lbXR designed, implemented, and on boarded hospital staff, developed an academic study with our research partner to further VR initiatives for patient safety and quality, as well her thoughts on the future uses of XR technologies for training in the medical field.
The Immersive Learning Knowledge Tree is a conceptual framework that supports a common understanding of the diverse field of immersive learning. The ILKT is based on 1) The premise of the importance of developing a common language; 2) The premise of the importance of not only using similar terminology as other researchers, but also having a deep understanding of how the methods researchers utilize in their own research are similar or different from those used by others; and 3) The premise of advancing the use of common theoretical approaches and models. Since its initial inception, the ILKT has developed core concepts, methods, outcomes, and tools/instruments. The ILKT also has significant plans for future development. This presentation will provide a brief overview of what the ILKT is, what has been done to develop it thus far, and what our plans are for the future.
Leonel Morgado (INESC TEC & Universidade Aberta, Portugal)
Outdated or Not? A Case Study of How 3D Desktop VR Is Accepted Today
PRESENTER: Hao He
ABSTRACT. Virtual reality (VR) is believed to be a beneficial medium for teaching and learning. While many researchers are pursuing more advanced VR technologies, devices, or systems to provide users or learners with more immersive and interactive VR learning experiences, many people have not even experienced some basic VR systems. In this paper, we investigated a straightforward question, "How do learners perceive their learning experience in a legacy VR system?" using Open-Simulator to host a VR online orientation. The results indicate that it was many participants’ first-time experiencing VR. Even if the VR system we used might seem outdated using today’s criteria, most enjoyed it very much and felt immersed in the VR world. The results implied that, though advanced immersive VR technology provides a better experience, a legacy VR system such as Open-Simulator may still be helpful in particular learning activities for specific learning populations.
Exploring Data Analytics in Mixed Reality Simulations to Measure Teacher Responsiveness paperlink.pngslides_icon.png
PRESENTER: Rhonda Bondie
ABSTRACT. A growing body of research begins to illustrate how mixed reality simulation (MRS) based on digital puppeteering (e.g., Mursion) may be used to provide practice-based opportunities in teacher education. Ironically, current research of this new technology often uses historic measures and conventional data analytics to measure teacher learning, such as holistic rubrics of qualities that describe an average or overall teacher performance or frequency counts of teaching behaviors. What is missing from the literature are novel approaches to measures, data collection and analyses that leverage the digital data available through MRS to explore new dynamic and responsive measures of teaching. For example, measurement of teacher growth could shift from focusing on teacher performance and behaviors to measuring teacher responsiveness to student variances. Rather than just measuring the extent to which a teacher can implement a specific teaching practice, researchers could examine the extent that the teacher adapted the teaching practice or selected appropriate teaching strategies based on qualities perceived in student responses. Now more than ever, we need innovation in teaching, especially developing teacher capacity to perceive and respond to student diversity in real time as learning unfolds. This study explored possible MRS measures and data analytics that examine teaching as a dynamic process responsive to student diversity. We found that specific elements of simulation design and implementation can generate data that measures indicators of teacher responsiveness to student variance.
Trial Assessment of Online Learners' Engagement with 360-degree Architecture Videos
PRESENTER: May Kristine Jonson Carlon
ABSTRACT. In recent years, with the development of massive open online courses (MOOCs) and extended reality (XR), the use of XR within MOOCs is becoming more feasible. Aside from making simulations possible, XR can support learning in domains where spatial awareness can be critical, such as in architecture. An intermediate technology to XR is 360-degree videos embedded in MOOCs that can be rendered in two-dimensional view (2D) via web browsers or in three-dimensional (3D) view (i.e., volumetric) with the use of a head-mounted display (HMD). When rendered in 3D, a more immersive learning environment may be achieved as the field of view restrictions in 2D format are removed. However, whether the additional dimension can enhance the learning experience, may it be in performance or satisfaction, is yet to be investigated. This study used a short learning module using contents from an existing edX architecture MOOC in a pre-test/post-test randomized mixed methods experiment where learners watch 360-degree videos via a web browser or with an HMD while being observed. Results indicate that while HMD usage may appear to elicit more engagement, the measured learned outcomes between the two groups do not significantly differ. Since purchasing an HMD for online learning is an expense, suggestions for improving the 3D experience were derived from learner interviews. These include better scrutiny of the purpose and alignment of 360-degree video content with the lessons and more robust beta-testing before course release to the public.
Multimodal Data as User’s Performance Recording in XR-based Training Simulation Environment slides_icon.png
PRESENTER: Kukhyeon Kim
ABSTRACT. This pilot research aims to investigate the potential of multimodal data in predicting the user’s performance in an XR-based training simulation environment. XR-based learning simulations have rapidly gained popularity in training education areas like the medical area due to their ability to provide training opportunities in an immersive and authentic environment. In this study, multimodal data, such as eye-tracking and behavioral data, were collected. Our goal is to investigate how and what kind of multimodal data could be collected in an XR-based learning environment. To achieve this, we collected multimodal data for attention, cognitive load, and performance behavior: head movement, hand movement, eye information, and object interaction from 22 medical residents who experienced strabismus diagnosis simulation. The data collected resulted in four categories of multimodal data with 127 sub-factors on performance behavior. These exploratory results provide evidence for predicting learner performance states in XR-based training simulations.
Designing Interactive Space for the XR Boardgame slides_icon.png
PRESENTER: Yuseon Jeong
ABSTRACT. This study proposes a design perspective for a user interface to create an interactive space for players in the XR environment. A board-game-based application was designed for Hololens2, which comprised of four areas in the interactive space: 1) dice rolling, 2) playing board, 3) message board, and 4) task area. Each component supported the user's engagement and facilitated an interactive user experience in the XR environment. Since spatial perception is crucial for designing the XR environment, the four components were created like a cinematic design. The dice rolling feature allowed the user to take turns with the computer. The playing board provided a navigational map of tasks, and the board was a mixed object combining physical and digital objects. The user was able to place the virtual playing board on a physical table for an authentically immersed environment. The message board provided various information to the user, while the task area represented unique characteristics of XR. We discuss the crucial design features of the application.
Work in Process: Immersive Reality Simulator, a Proposal to Support Siderurgy Processes
PRESENTER: Ahmed Musule Alfaro
ABSTRACT. This work refers to the interaction that an application of virtual reality in foundry processes must include in order to gain an inmersive experience, especially at the casting process. To carry out the above, 2D and 3D virtual reality techniques were used for the construction of immersive scenarios, resulting in two virtual reality scenes where the user can interact with the objects that are presented to him, in addition to being able to appreciate more visual each casting process thanks to the videos included in the scenes. At the end of this work its aimed to conclud, that the interaction of virtual reality in this project has a great impact because the casting process is visualized without the need to be present in a plant, allowing the user to obtain knowledge of the process in a virtual way, avoiding accidents that can be physically caused and reduce potential material wear costs.
Exponenself: Exploring and Strengthening Your Cultural Identity from Virtual Reality to Reality
ABSTRACT. Exponenself is a virtual reality (VR) platform designed to help individuals in exploring and strengthening their identity through embodied self-dialogue. This tool has the potential to help reduce the risk of mental health issues, particularly among Asian Americans who may face racial/cultural identity crises, as well as experiencing a lack of safe spaces to process microaggressions. Through self-dialogue sessions, users can take on different roles, including therapist, past self, and parent, to facilitate identity development and cultural heritage preservation. The design of Exponenself is grounded in the assumptions that role-playing games can provide a safe and immersive space for individuals to explore their identity through avatar creation, and that self-dialogue, especially with avatars that resemble oneself, can be advantageous for identity development.
Exponenself is intended to serve as a preventative and educational tool before therapy sessions and a companion and maintenance tool after treatment. Its underlying principles are based on the theories of perspective-taking, Solomon's paradox, the Proteus effect, and the Empty Chair Technique. The use of avatars and non-player characters (NPCs) to facilitate identity talk in VR aims to help users build internal confidence and resilience to manage real-life challenges and increase understanding and appreciation of cultural diversity. By offering a safe and engaging space for users to explore their identity and cultural heritage, Exponenself has the potential to aid in reducing mental health risks and to provide support to those who may not have access to safe spaces for processing microaggressions.
Work-in-Progress—Exploring the Effectiveness of Multi-User Basic Workflow Assessment Training in Web XR
PRESENTER: César Daniel Rojas Ferrer
ABSTRACT. This paper introduces a Web XR system for immersive multi-user basic workflow assessment training in the industrial sector. As society ages and remote work becomes more prevalent, the need for virtual training solutions in education and the workforce has become increasingly important. The proposed system uses off-the-shelf headsets and advanced Human-Computer Interaction (HCI) design principles to provide an immersive remote online training solution. To evaluate the effectiveness of the system, experiments were conducted with voluntary engineers (n=9) using a custom questionnaire. The results of the experiments showed that the system was well-received, with good acceptance scores on a 4-point Likert Scale (M=3.3, scale range=1-4). The open comments also provided useful feedback on important HCI elements that could enhance the effectiveness of multi-user virtual training with Web XR in future iterations of the system. This work-in-progress paper contributes to the development of effective virtual training solutions that can address the challenges faced by the industrial sector in the age of remote work and social distancing.
Using Feedback to Support Learning Statistics in Higher Education Within a Game-Based Learning Environment
PRESENTER: Anupam Makhija
ABSTRACT. Learning statistics is a tedious task and students show a lack of motivation in learning this subject. Game-based learning (GBL) can be efficiently used to enrich the learning experience and can help enhance the curiosity and motivation of learners to keep them engaged. Enhancing curiosity and motivation in a GBL environment through effective feedback can address the issues related to statistics education. We have developed a statistical game consisting of four levels comprising of questions developed using Bloom’s taxonomy. The game weaves a story around three United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (UN SDGs) related to poverty, education, and health, and utilizes feedback mechanisms to enhance curiosity and motivation in the learners to sustain engagement during the gameplay. This paper reports on the design of the game supported by a conceptual feedback framework from a psychological perspective to enhance learners’ curiosity and motivation.
The Metaverse Campus: Transforming Learning for International Students
PRESENTER: Tianshi Hao
ABSTRACT. This is a work in progress paper that aims to discuss the use of immersive technologies to address the challenges of social adjustments many international students face as they arrive in the US to continue their education. In particular, emphasis will be given to studying the potential implementation of VR to resemble the campus in a virtual form and thus aid future students in accommodating and adjusting to the new campus life. We will also discuss the potential benefits of VR learning to address students' challenges.
Simulation Training and Preparedness of Fellows in Reproductive Medicine: Comparing Value of Hybrid Workshops with Loan Programs
ABSTRACT. To compare two formats of simulation training offered to fellows in reproductive medicine and infertility (REI) programs from American Board of Obstetrics and Gynecology–approved training programs and assess the value of in-person facilitated hybrid workshops with 6-month in-house facilitated loan programs. Setting of the hybrid workshop is an instructor facilitated 2-day in-person immersive training with prior course work requirements. The loan program is setup for 6-months of immersive learning with online course work requirements and an in-house facilitator. Preliminary data collected from baseline and post confidence surveys demonstrated significant improvements in both skill and confidence. Results from this study will demonstrate effectiveness of immersive simulation based learning and improvement in self confidence among medical experts and demonstrate the need for expansion of simulation programs across the REI field and beyond in the medical profession.
Mystery of the Lehigh Gap: Summary of the Visual Aspects Designed and Developed for the Dialogue System for Desktop VR Game
PRESENTER: Tarah Cicero
ABSTRACT. This paper shares the design and development process of the dialogue system for the desktop Virtual Reality (dVR) game "Mystery of the Lehigh Gap". Additionally, it outlines design choices as a means of increasing the immersiveness of gameplay including: creation of game characters (avatars), visual representation of roles, use of authentic local media, and incorporation of adapted historic cartoons and photos.
Independently Supporting Learners in VR with an AI-enabled Non-Player Character (NPC)
ABSTRACT. The shift to computer-based Emergency Remote Teaching (ERT) and online learning during the pandemic resulted in a generally negative and an unprecedented student experience. Students were challenged by undesirable study environments, inadequate social connectedness, and increased workloads. To address these issues a Virtual Reality environment with an Artificial Intelligent non-player character acting as a supporting interlocutor is utilized to address the concerns of learner engagement, anxiety and cognitive workload when engaged in remote education.
The Role of Virtual Reality in Distance Learning: An Examination of the Efficacy on Student Learning Outcomes, Social Presence, and Collaborative Learning.
ABSTRACT. This article discusses the potential of virtual reality (VR) as a tool for enhancing student learning outcomes in distance education. The author explores whether integrating VR technology into digital learning environments can increase social presence, experiential and communal learning, and overall student learning outcomes. The paper offers a review of the literature on VR, distance learning, social presence, practical application, and learning outcomes. While VR has the potential to enhance the educational experience, its implementation in higher education has been slow, largely due to funding constraints and instructor resistance. However, with affordable hardware options like the Meta Quest headset, VR adoption in higher education is becoming increasingly accessible. Furthermore, research shows that VR can aid in achieving higher levels of Bloom's Taxonomy, as well as fostering self-directed learning and experiential discovery. The author concludes that while integrating VR into online education comes with certain challenges, such as training, technical support, and investing in infrastructure, the technology's potential for facilitating better learning outcomes makes it a promising tool for the future of distance education.
Empathetic Chatbot: Enhancing Medical Education with Artificial Intelligence
ABSTRACT. This article discusses the development of a chatbot that is designed to assist medical students in practicing empathetic communication skills with simulated patients. Empathy is critical in clinical outcomes and can improve the provider-patient relationship. The chatbot provides personalized learning support to students and is created using an artificial intelligence (AI) intent framework, with a natural language processor (NLP) interface and uses a Dialogflow intent process framework. Additionally, the article considers the cost-saving benefits of incorporating chatbots in medical education as a potential cost benefit to standardized patient scenarios. Finally, it summarizes the studies that have demonstrated the effectiveness of chatbots as a learning tool and underscore their potential to enhance the learning process in medical education.
Action Research on Exploring the Educational Use of VR Platform in Art Education
ABSTRACT. This study investigates the use of VR platforms in art education to overcome physical limitations in art activities, such as exhibition planning and hosting classes. This study was conducted for four months, and 14 hours of student classes were intervened and observed over two months. Overall, the study findings show that VR platforms can be a solution for art education. This preliminary study leaves two implications. First, this study found a technology infrastructure challenge that involves limited wireless internet and devices (e.g., tablet PCs and laptops). Second, teachers' digital literacy capacity is important, and assistant teachers to support its management is crucial. Overall, this study proposes new art and teaching methods using VR platforms.
Gamification System Design for Promoting Heterophily in Accounting Education
PRESENTER: Jewoong Moon
ABSTRACT. This positional paper focuses on promoting heterophily in accounting education using the Classcred gamification system. The system incentivizes students to collaborate with peers from diverse cultural backgrounds, which fosters diversity and intercultural competence. This paper proposes future research goals to assess the effectiveness of the gamification system and its potential impact on promoting heterophily and diversity in accounting education.
Applying Virtual Reality (VR) for Immersive Experiential Learning in Underserved Rural Schools
ABSTRACT. This study presented immersive experiential learning methods using virtual reality (VR) technology to students in challenging educational environments. This study investigated the effects of these methods and whether they can be used to enhance student learning in rural schools. A VR-based Antarctic exploration was conducted, and project classes linked to other subjects were taught aligned with this theme. This study assessed student motivation and academic achievement using VR devices, and found that students achieved great success in other subjects linked to project classes
Teachers’ integration of Immersive Virtual Reality in Enhancing Mathematics Competence among High School Students in an Online Learning Environment: A Narrative Review
PRESENTER: Jewoong Moon
ABSTRACT. Abstract. This review paper will aim at narrating the design and integration of immersive virtual reality (IVR) in teachers’ instruction in enhancing high school students’ mathematics competence in an online learning environment. The study aims to answer three research questions: the current state of IVR in Mathematics Education, the potential benefits of using IVR, and the limitations of using IVR. The study will utilize a narrative review and evaluate empirical studies on the effectiveness of IVR in enhancing high school students’ mathematics competencies. A search would be conducted in electronic databases (i.e., Scopus, Web of Science, and ERIC) for relevant studies published from 2010 to 2023. The expected results would provide insights into the potential of IVR in improving mathematics competence in an online environment and highlight key benefits and challenges. This presentation would also provide recommendations for educators and policymakers to integrate IVR into online mathematics education.
Work-in-Progress—Review of the Application of the Spherical Video-Based Virtual Reality in Education: A Case Study of EduVenture-VR and Its Use in Chinese Language Education
ABSTRACT. With the rapid development of technology and online education, the application of virtual reality (VR) in education has been an important research direction in recent years. VR technology has been developed; spherical video-based virtual reality (hereinafter referred to as SVVR) is one of its new sub-categories. SVVR can easily be produced by a 360-degree camera and accessed with a mobile phone and head-mounted display (HMD) such as low-cost goggles. SVVR has been applied in various fields in recent years, such as medical treatment and education. In the field of education, studies related to the application of SVVR in Chinese language education for Chinese learners (L1) are limited. EduVenture-VR is an integrated SVVR learning platform for enabling frontline teachers to incorporate SVVR-supported teaching in classrooms. This work-in-progress paper reviews the existing studies pertaining to the adoption of EduVenture-VR in Chinese language education.
Immersive Technology-Enhanced Learning System Design in Civil Engineering Education
PRESENTER: Jewoong Moon
ABSTRACT. This positional paper proposes the use of immersive technology-enhanced learning systems (ITELS) to enhance civil engineering education and develop 21st-century competencies. The integration of immersive technology, including virtual reality and augmented reality, can create interactive and immersive environments that simulate real-world scenarios and engage students in problem-solving activities. To effectively integrate immersive technology in civil engineering education, evidence-centered design, appropriate pedagogical strategies, and alignment of learning activities to workforce training are crucial. Future research can explore how evidence-centered design, pedagogical strategies, and evaluation frameworks can enhance the effectiveness of immersive technology in civil engineering education. Ultimately, the successful integration of immersive technology in civil engineering education can contribute to producing competent and future-ready graduates who can address the complex challenges of the industry aligned with future workforce development.
Work-in-Progress—Using Virtual Reality to Drive Social Inclusion for Children on the Autism Spectrum in West Africa
ABSTRACT. There is significant stigma associated with neurodiversity across the globe. In addition, education for children with learning disorders is severely under-resourced in West Africa. This work-in-progress paper describes how we are using virtual (VR) to create an engaged, informed community about autism spectrum disorders and the importance of appropriate, compassionate education for every child. Focusing on parents, teachers and healthcare workers, we used a 2-minute 360 film created by the National Autistic Society UK, from the perspective of a child with autism experiencing sensory overload to educate and sensitise the population to the impact of sensory overload. We reached over 1,000 school teachers, medical staff, family and friends in Lagos, Abuja, Enugu and Accra. We found people were willing to engage with the experience, and teachers expressed increased curiosity and acceptance of children with autism. By bringing the reality of lived experiences of marginalised groups to the public, we are using VR as a tool for social inclusion.