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iLRN2024 Proceedings Access ×
  • Schedule of iLRN2024 Academic Stream to be Posted Here
  • Tree Trunk (1): Foundations of Immersive Learning - Computer Science, UX Game Design, and the Learning Sciences
    1 Foundations of Immersive Learning sessions:  

    Author(s) Title
    Kaili Shan, Tiger Sun, Jarrod Tard, Lucas Li, Brandon Woodard, Christian Eckhardt and Irene Humer Virtual Learning Laboratories for High School Chemistry Lab: An Immersive Learning User Study
    Monika Fuchs-Brantl WORK-IN-PROGRESS-PAPER: SENSORY POTENTIALS IN THE IMMERSION EXPERIENCE OF SCHOOLCHILDREN IN VIRTUAL REALITY The importance of sensory integration regarding the immersion effect
    Jule M. Krüger Adaptive Learning and Instruction with Augmented Reality: A Scoping Review
    Gary Burnett An Evaluation of Headset vs Desktop use for accessing Virtual Worlds in a Higher Education Context
    Stavros A. Nikou, Maria Perifanou and Anastasios A. Economides Exploiting the TARC framework: The relations between educators’ attitudes towards AR, innovativeness, digital skills, and AR skills in education
    Anthony Scavarelli, Ali Arya and Robert J. Teather Circles: A Framework for Creating Inclusive Virtual Reality Learning Activities in Social Learning Spaces
    Fredrica Higgs and Patrick O'Shea Global Citizenship: A Journey Through Immersive Education
    Elisa Serrano-Ausejo and Peter Mozelius Design of Virtual Reality Environments to Support Learning in History Education
    Bárbara Cleto "Our online classroom": Immersive Web Environment
    Rachael Kaye, Austin Porter, Christine Moore, Neha Balamurugan, Hanieh Khaleghian and Robert Likamwa Perfecting the Interdisciplinary Storm: Immersive Narrative Development Workflows in Context of Meteorology Labs
    Marialena Dalla and Vasiliki Xanthopoulou Teaching Traffic Safety Skills to People with Moderate Intellectual Disability Using Augmented Reality
    Chaye Foster, Emilia Urdl, Christin Steller, Sabahodin Sharaf, Ronja Rößner, Stylianos Mystakidis, Jack Ingram, Hari Konda Ramamoorthy and Markos Mentzelopoulos Telecommunications History Escape Room Puzzle Game: Become a Phryctoria Archmaester
    Luiza Schell and Eliane Schlemmer Immersive, Inventive, and Gamified Narratives for Digital Citizenship Formation in the OnLIFE Education Paradigm
    Robson Araujo-Junior and Alec Bodzin Considering Theoretical and Design Principles for Lifelong and Immersive Learning Experiences
    Carl Boel Perceptions of higher education students on immersive virtual reality for communication skills training. The Bodyswaps case
    Sajjad Bagheri Baba Ahmadi and Marco Gilardi Immersive Learning: Challenges and Trends
    Hanieh Khaleghian, Julianna Piechowicz, Rachael Kaye and Robert Likamwa Career XRcade Framework: Student-driven Collaborative Platform for Immersive Career Exploration, Insights From Stakeholders
    Hyojung Jung, Hyunmi Do, Heejeung Jee and Jeong Hun Lee Analysis of learning experience in a 3D Metaverse platform-based learning environment
    Maha Albaid and Michael Manzke Design of Immersive Virtual Reality Environment for Learning 3D Transformations
    Hyojung Jung, Heejeung Jee, Hyunmi Do and Jong Tae Park Building Korean Language education “Metaversity” (Metaverse+University) for international students
    Hamida Khatri A Potential Therapeutic Study: Employing A Physiological Computing Approach Using A Sweat-Sensing Bodysuit in Fear-Induced Virtual Reality Simulations to Offer a New Frontier of Assistance and Recovery for Victims of Gender-Based Violence
    Soundarya Korlapati, Cheryl D Seals, Sathish Akula, Nikolay Sargsyan, Jeffrey Kim and Marta Miletic Virtual Immersion: Bridging the Gap between Construction Management and Civil Engineering Students’ Learning and Performance in Structural Analysis
    Masako Hayashi How a metaverse world and 360 video deepened their intercultural understanding: A comparative analysis of student views towards various types of multimedia used in international collaborative presentations
    Fabian Froehlich, Bruce D. Homer and Jan L. Plass The vibrotactile paradox: corrective and reenforcing feedback in educational VR
    Pia Spangenberger, Kilian Sanchez Holguin and Sarah-Christin Freytag Scent Box: Prototyping and instructions for olfactory enhancement of VR-Experiences
    Yuko Suzuki, Fridolin Wild and Eileen Scanlon Measuring Cognitive Load with Eye-tracking during Mental Rotation with 2D and 3D Visualization in AR
    Luna Lembo, Elèna Cipollone, Stefania Morsanuto and Francesco Peluso Cassese Augmented Didactic: interacting with 3D models to enhance the memory systems
    Eileen McGivney, Anna C. M. Queiroz, Mark Roman Miller, Sunny Liu, Brian Beams, Eugy Han, Erika S. Woolsey, Kai Frazier, Xander Peterson and Jeremy Bailenson Complexity of Agency in VR Learning Environments: Exploring Associations with Interactivity, Learning Outcomes, and Affect
    Gary Burnett Ready Student One: A Framework for Avatar Design in Higher Education
    Saeed Safikhani, Lennart Nacke and Johanna Pirker A Literature Review and Taxonomy of In-VR Questionnaire User Interfaces
    Dennis Beck and Leonel Morgado Describing and interpreting immersive learning cases with the immersion cube and the immersive learning brain

    1 Foundations of Immersive Learning House Information

    1 Foundations Forum: (click here)

  • Branch TreeHouse 2: Assessment & Evaluation
    2 Assessment & Evaluation sessions:  

    David Panzoli, Judicaël Thivet, Eduarda Abrantes, Gustavo dos Reis, Michel Galaup, Pierre Lagarrigue and Maria Gonzalez Martinez Is usability always productive in learning environments?
    Ke Xu, Michael Cowling and Shweta Singh How Virtual Reality can support Registered Training Organizations to design / conduct effective assessments in accordance with the Principles of Assessment
    Diana Almeida, Maria Castelhano, Daniela Pedrosa and Leonel Morgado Work-in-progress: Introduction to Virtual Reality Headset: Experiments with Secondary and Higher Education students

    2 Branch TreeHouse A&E Information

    2 Branch TreeHouse A&E Forum: (click here)

  • Branch TreeHouse 3: Galleries, Libraries, Archives, and Museums
    3 Galleries, Libraries, Archives, & Museums sessions:  

    Saeed Safikhani, Benedikt Gross and Johanna Pirker The Application of Procedurally Generated Libraries in Immersive Virtual Reality
    Victor Yuan, Alan Miller, Perin Joy Westerhof Nyman and Iain Oliver Designing MetaHuman-Based Historical Characters in Virtual Exhibitions and Scenes: A Case Study on St Andrews
    Jasmine Aavaranta Hansén, Almevik Gunnar, Fornander Elin, William R. Illsley, Wilhelm Lagercrantz, Petrina Vasileiou and Jonathan Westin Innovation in Heritage Education: Exploring Immersive Technologies Across European Museum and Heritage Sites
    Farzan Baradaran Rahimi Reshaping the Museum Concept through Immersive Learning: A Speculative Design Exploration

    3 Branch TreeHouse GLAM Information

    3 Branch TreeHouse GLAM Forum: (click here)

  • Branch TreeHouse 4: Inclusion, Diversity, Access, and Social Justice
  • Branch TreeHouse 5: Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math
  • STEM sessions at iLRN2024: 

    • Experiences of Personal and Social Immersion in a Videogame for Middle School Life Science

  • Branch Treehouse 6: Language, Culture, & Heritage
  • Language, Culture, and Heritage sessions at iLRN2024

    • Exploring Augmented Reality for Chinese as a Foreign Language Learners’ Reading Comprehension
  • Branch TreeHouse 7: Medical & Healthcare Education
  • Branch TreeHouse 8: Nature & Environmental Sciences
  • Nature and Environmental Sciences for iLRN2024

    • Design and Development of XR-Based Data Problem-Solving Content for Sustainable Development Education
  • Branch TreeHouse 9: Workforce Development & Training
  • Branch TreeHouse 10: Self and Co-Regulated Learning with Immersive Learning Environments
  • Growing the evidence for "what works" in Immersive Learning

    The field of Immersive Learning is emerging out of research in Computer Science, Game Design, UX, the Learning Sciences, and all areas for applying Immersive Learning in context.  The iLRNetwork calls all immersive learning researchers to apply their diverse expertise to participate in the design, development, and growth of the body of evidence around "what works" for Immersive Learning.

    Contribute to The Knowledge Tree!

    1. Immersion

      1. Many scholars assume an intuitive understanding of the concept of “immersion”, without even citing a definition [1]. This intuitive understanding was originally expressed by Murray’s analogy to being submerged in water, a “sensation of being surrounded by a completely other reality” [2]. Scholars across technology-centered fields of study have adopted this perspective and developed it into two main theoretical views, both employed by diverse groups of authors. The first is the concept of immersion as an attribute, quality, or characteristic of a technological system [3]. The second view focuses on the participants’ response to being surrounded or submerged [4]. However, outside the field of technology, and prior to its preoccupation with immersion, other fields have been discussing this topic: learning sciences, psychology, literature studies, the arts, etc. These fields discussed how narratives, engagement, psychological flow and other factors have contributed to immersion as a phenomenon [5]. Over 20 years have passed since the two technological-centered theoretical views debuted, yet the scholarly activity in the field of immersive learning research has neither embraced a definition nor combined it with the concurrent non-technological views. In the field of cognitive science, Slater may have come the closest by acknowledging the role of narrative, not just the technology attributes [3]. This fragmented perspective on immersion is reflected in the current literature reviews published in the field, with many of them simply selecting a definition without explanation, evidence, or critical appraisal [1], often intertwined or synonymous with other concepts such as presence, involvement, flow and engagement [5]. This has short-circuited the impact of the reviews as they have not been successful in bridging theoretical perspectives on immersion with current research results, and thus have not been able to highlight the gap in the existing research: Many do not even cite other previous reviews [6].

      2. More recently there have been significant efforts to develop a comprehensive definition of immersion. The research team of Nilsson and colleagues from Denmark performed an exhaustive, interdisciplinary review of the definitions of immersion in order to develop a three-dimensional taxonomy, which they illustrate with the “immersion cube” diagram [5]. The immersion cube provides a theoretical structure for understanding immersion in three different dimensions: system immersion, narrative immersion, and challenge-based immersion. The experienced immersion is thus understood as the nexus of these dimensions. The cube can be used to measure and visually display an interpretation of immersion as varying levels of the three dimensions. The system immersion dimension reflects the properties of the system, which comprises Slater’s definition [9] and simultaneously highlights it as unidimensional. The narrative immersion dimension reflects the “degree of mental absorption or intense preoccupation with the story, the diegetic space, and the characters inhabiting this space” (id., p. 114). This highlights content-based immersion (system and narrative) as bidimensional. Finally, challenge-based immersion reflects “a user’s mental absorption brought about by the experience of challenges requiring mental or sensorimotor skills” (p. 116). This extrudes the agency of the immersed as an essential dimension of the immersion phenomenon.

      3. These dimensions comprise the diversity of other aspects employed in the field. For instance, challenge-based immersion includes aspects such as what Adams [7] described as strategic immersion (optimization of choices, rather than meaning, e.g., focusing on winning a game rather than following the storyline) and tactical immersion, which occurs when attention is absorbed reacting to obstacles or enjoyment – an interpretation which is extremely like Csikszentmihalyi’s concept of flow [8]. Presence is another major parallel concept related to immersion. Described as the feeling of “being there” [8], this psychological state is more extensive than that. Alternative views include Lombard and Ditton’s [9] definition of presence as the perception of non-mediation, Biocca’s [10] contribution of presence as arising from a mental imagery space, Slater [11] and Waterworth & Waterworth’s attentional perspective on presence as emphasis on perception of stimuli [12], and Riva et al.’s [13] view of presence as a biological and cultural mechanic for self-making sense of sensorial input. Nilsson et al. [5] discussed how these four views on presence are related to the three dimensions of system, narrative, and challenge-based immersion. Slater’s emphasis on measurability of presence maps to the concept of system immersion, for instance; the self-making from sensory input is related to the combined dimensions of challenge-based immersion and narrative immersion. The three-dimensional view of immersion integrates these diverse perspectives on presence, from an alternative theoretical viewpoint.

      4. Although Nillson and colleagues provided this clarity towards our understanding of immersion, they did not define it. That pragmatic contribution was provided by Agrawal, Simon, and Bech [14], who although without being aware of Nillson et al.’s work did reach an identical conclusion from the extant literature and synthesized it as “a phenomenon experienced by an individual when (...) in a state of deep mental involvement in which (...) cognitive processes (...) cause a shift in (...) attentional state such that one may experience disassociation from the awareness of the physical world” (p. 5). Their definition thus supplies a practical component to complement the immersion cube taxonomic framework. Thus, the ontological roots of the Knowledge Tree include both Agrawal et al.’s definition and Nilsson et al.’s immersion cube.


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